Indira Gandhi Wikipedia, Biography, Age, Family, Husband, Caste, Images
Indira Gandhi, in full Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi, Nehru, (born November 19, 1917, Allahabad, India—died October 31, 1984, New Delhi). Politician who served as prime minister of India for three consecutive terms. Because (1966–77) and a fourth term from 1980 until she was assassinated in 1984.
Date of Birth : 19 November 1917
Place of Birth : Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh
Parents : Jawaharlal Nehru (father) and Kamala Nehru (mother)
Spouse : Feroze Gandhi
Children : Rajiv Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi
Education : International School of Geneva, Vishwabharati University, Shantiniketan; Somerville College, Oxford
Association : Indian National Congress
Movement : Indian Independence Movement
Political Ideology : Right winged, Liberal
Religious views : Hinduism
Publications : My Truth (1980), Eternal India (1981)
Passed Away : 31 October 1984
Memorial : Shakti Sthal, New Delhi
Childhood & Early Life
Indira Gandhi was born Indira Nehru on 19 November, 1917, in Allahabad to Kamala and Jawaharlal Nehru. Indira’s father, Jawaharlal was a well-educated lawyer. And an active member of the Indian Independence Movement. She passed her Metric from Pune University. And went to Shantiniketan in West Bengal. Indira Gandhi Wikipedia
Because later went on to study in Switzerland and Oxford University in London. Indira then stayed for a few months in Switzerland with her ailing mother. In 1936, after her mother, Kamala Nehru succumbed to tuberculosis. She returned to India. At the time of Kamala’s death, Jawaharlal Nehru, was languishing in Indian jails.
First Period As Prime Minister
On Shastri’s sudden death in January 1966. Gandhi was named leader of the Congress Party—and thus also became prime minister—in a compromise between the party’s right and left wings. Her leadership, however, came under continual challenge from the right wing of the party. Led by former minister of finance Morarji Desai. She won a seat in the 1967 elections to the Lok Sabha (lower chamber of the Indian parliament). But the Congress Party managed to win only a slim majority of seats. And Gandhi had to accept Desai as deputy prime minister. Indira Gandhi Wikipedia
Tensions grew within the party, however, and in 1969 she was expelled from it by Desai and other members of the old guard. Undaunted, Gandhi, joined by a majority of party members, formed a new faction around her called the “New” Congress Party. In the 1971 Lok Sabha elections the New Congress group won a sweeping electoral victory over a coalition of conservative parties. Gandhi strongly supported East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) in its secessionist conflict with Pakistan in late 1971, and India’s armed forces achieved a swift and decisive victory over Pakistan that led to the creation of Bangladesh. She became the first government leader to recognize the new country.
Marriage & Family Life
In 1941, despite his father’s objections, she married Feroze Gandhi. In 1944, Indira gave birth to Rajiv Gandhi followed two years later by Sanjay Gandhi. During the 1951-52 Parliamentary Elections. Indira Gandhi handled the campaigns of her husband, Feroze, who was contesting from Rae Bareli, Uttar Pradesh. After being elected an MP, Feroze opted to live in a separate house in Delhi. Indira Gandhi Wikipedia
Feroze soon became a prominent force against the corruption in the Nehru led government. He exposed a major scandal involving prominent insurance companies. And the Finance Minister T.T. Krishnamachari. The Finance Minister was considered to be a close aide of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Feroze had emerged as a noted figure in the country’s political circle. He, with a small coterie of supporters and advisors continued to challenge the Central government. On 8 September 1960, Feroze died after a major cardiac arrest.
Fall From Power And Return To Office
Public opposition to Gandhi’s two years of emergency rule was vehement. And widespread, and after it ended in early 1977, the released political rivals were determined to oust her. And the New Congress Party from power. When long-postponed national parliamentary elections were held later in 1977. She and her party were soundly defeated, whereupon she left office. The Janata Party (precursor to the Bharatiya Janata Party) took over the reins of government. With newly recruited member Desai as prime minister. Indira Gandhi Wikipedia
In early 1978 Gandhi and her supporters completed the split from the Congress Party by forming the Congress (I) Party—the “I” signifying Indira. She was briefly imprisoned (October 1977 and December 1978) on charges of official corruption. Despite those setbacks, she won a new seat in the Lok Sabha in November 1978. And her Congress (I) Party began to gather strength. Dissension within the ruling Janata Party led to the fall of its government in August 1979. When new elections for the Lok Sabha were held in January 1980. Gandhi and Congress (I) were swept back into power in a landslide victory. Her son Sanjay, who had become her chief political adviser, also won a seat in the Lok Sabha. All legal cases against Indira, as well as against Sanjay, were withdrawn.
Sanjay Gandhi’s death in an airplane crash in June 1980 eliminated Indira’s chosen successor from the political leadership of India. After Sanjay’s death, Indira groomed her other son, Rajiv, for the leadership of her party. She adhered to the quasi-socialist policies of industrial development that had been begun by her father. She established closer relations with the Soviet Union. Depending on that country for support in India’s long-standing conflict with Pakistan.
Early Entry into Politics
Since the Nehru family was the centre of national political activity. Indira Gandhi was exposed to politics from a young age. A leader like Mahatma Gandhi was among the frequent visitors to the Nehru house in Allahabad. After his return to the country, Indira showed keen interest in the national movement. She also became a member of the Indian National Congress. Here, she met Feroze Gandhi, a journalist and key member of the Youth Congress – the youth wing of the Congress Party. After independence, Indira Gandhi’s father Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of India. Indira Gandhi decided to shift to Delhi to assist his father. Her two sons remained with her but Feroze decided to stay back in Allahabad. He was working as an editor of ‘The National Herald’ newspaper founded by Motilal Nehru. Indira Gandhi Wikipedia
Indira as Congress President
In 1959, Indira Gandhi was elected as the President of the Indian National Congress Party. She was one of the political advisors of Jawaharlal Nehru. After the death of Jawaharlal Nehru on 27 May 1964. Indira Gandhi decided to contest elections and eventually got elected. She was appointed as in-charge of the Information and Broadcasting Ministry under Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri.
It was believed that Indira Gandhi was adept at the art of politics and image-making. This is corroborated by an event that took place during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. While the war was on, Indira Gandhi went on a holiday trip to Srinagar. Despite repeated warnings by the security forces that Pakistani insurgents had entered very close to the hotel she was staying, Gandhi refused to move. The incident fetched her huge national and international media attention.
Indo-Pakistan War in 1971
The 1971 Indo-Pakistan war was the direct after-effect of the Bangladesh Liberation War in East Pakistan. The military specifically targeted the Hindu minority population. And committed atrocious acts of torture throughout the country. As a result, about 10 million East Pakistani citizens fled the country and sought refuge in India. The overwhelming refugee situation prompted Indira Gandhi to support Awami League’s struggle for freedom against West Pakistan. India provided logistical support and also sent troops to fight against West Pakistan. The war concluded on 16 December 1971 in Dhaka. After the Eastern Command of the Pakistani Armed Forces signed the Instrument of Surrender. And that marked the birth of the new nation of Bangladesh. India’s triumph in the war of 1971 against Pakistan enhanced the popularity of Indira Gandhi as a shrewd political leader.
Second Term as Prime Minister of India
With so little in common among the allies of the Janata Party. The members were busy in internal strife. In an effort to expel Indira Gandhi from the Parliament. The Janata government ordered to arrest her. However, the strategy failed disastrously and gained Indira Gandhi sympathy from the people who had considered her as an autocrat just two years back. In the 1980 elections, Congress returned to power with a landslide majority. And Indira Gandhi returned as Prime Minister of India once again. Experts viewed the victory of the Congress as a result of inefficient and ineffective “Janata Party”.
Operation Blue Star
In September 1981, a Sikh militant group demanding “Khalistan” entered into the premises of the Golden Temple, Amritsar. Indira Gandhi ordered the Army to barge into the holy shrine to carry out Operation Blue Star. The army resorted to heavy artillery including tanks. And cannons which although led to subduing of the militant threat, also claimed lives of innocent civilians. The impact of the onslaught increased the communal tensions in the country. Many Sikhs resigned from the armed and civil administrative office. And also returned their government awards in protest. Indira Gandhi Wikipedia
On 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi’s bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh fired a total of 31 bullets on Indira Gandhi from their service weapons as a revenge of the Golden Temple assault at her residence – 1, Safdarjung Road in New Delhi and she succumbed to her injuries.
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